Tuesday, September 27, 2016
The Reality Of Burprenorphine Therapy
It is increasingly popular for politicians and healthcare businesses to discuss their ideas about how to end the opioid epidemic that they started. One of the common themes is widespread availability of both buprenorphine maintenance therapy and naloxone opioid antagonist therapy for acute overdoses. I am certainly not opposed to either and in fact work in an addiction treatment environment where these are two of several medication assisted therapies used to treat addictive disorders. I am skeptical of the idea that broad prescribing of these therapies in either primary care clinics or some treatment settings will ever occur. Naloxone will be more readily available because there is a movement to create easy access without a prescription. That will never happen with buprenorphine. Last week - an article in JAMA backs up my skepticism (1).
The JAMA article looks at 3234 buprenorphine prescribers in the 7 states with the most buprenorphine prescribers. In their introduction the authors talk about the policy initiatives to increase the maximum patients per prescriber from 30 to 100 patients after a year. The average monthly patient census per month varied from 7 - 22 patients and a median monthly patient census of 13 patients. The duration of treatment episode was 53 days. This illustrates that the monthly census was well below the allowed limits and the duration of treatment was well below the recommended maintenance guideline of 12 months. They cite evidence that novice prescribers wanted more access to substance use counselors or other prescribers with more experience as potential limiting factors.
The authors of this article do not offer other explanations for the low rate of buprenorphine prescribing. I have a few. I really do not like stigma arguments. To me stigma seems like an excuse for not being able to overcome societal biases toward a particular problem. I don't see how you can train to be a physician and not have most of these biases wrung out of you. With addictions and mental illnesses there may be a stronger bias based on personal experience. Some physicians may have come from a family where the the father was an alcoholic or a heroin addict living homeless on the street and everybody was used to that idea. Some physicians may have come from families where the father was still drinking and dying of cirrhosis and the familiy opinion was that he "has a right to drink himself to death" rather than get treatment that he did not want in order to stop drinking. Other physicians may have come from families where father and his father both had severe alcoholism. Grandfather drank himself to death by the time he was 50. Father got treatment for his alcohol problem and was in stable recovery for years. All of these personal experiences and the reactions to them will affect how a physician approaches alcoholism and addiction.
Those biases are all part the the inevitable decision-making process that leads physicians down specific career paths. I have lost count of the number of times that another specialist told me that they really liked psychiatry and were considering the residency except for certain features of the field. A couple of examples include needing to try to predict suicide and aggression and live with the consequences or dealing with a certain diagnostic group like patients with severe personality disorders. People are less specific about addictions, probably because as medical students and interns we all see the severe effects. Most of the acute care hospitals where physicians train have 30-50% of their admissions based on the acute effects of alcohol or drug use. That includes many admissions for acute hepatitis, hepatic encephalopathy from cirrhosis, acute alcohol poisoning, acute overdoses on addictive drugs, and various psychiatric morbidities like delirium and psychosis from the acute effects of addictive drugs. It is less obvious but addictive drugs and alcohol are also overrepresented as reasons for admission to surgical trauma units and burn units. Most interns and residents see these effects first hand and develop both short term and long term perspectives on these problems.
This seems like another case of managers and politicians not appreciating the intense interpersonal aspects of medicine. Physicians are all not foot soldiers just waiting for the next assignment from a policy maker. Physicians have probably carefully selected the type of practice they want to be in and there are more than the technical aspects of the speciality that were considered. It takes a unique skill set to treat people with addictions. Treating and maintaining an opioid addict in treatment long enough with buprenorphine maintenance for them to realize any benefit is a very unique skill. Being affiliated with other buprenorphine prescribers is also a necessity to provide cross coverage for patients. Speciality care centers for addiction seem like an idea to me that does not get a lot of consideration. Trying to run a buprenorphine maintenance program in a practice environment that is rationed to the degree it currently is does not seem feasible to me. Adding buprenorphine maintenance as just another task for a busy primary care physician practicing primary care medicine is not likely to work. It should be obvious that these physicians have more than enough to do right now.
There is a lot more to it than increasing the maximum numbers of opioid addicted patients on buprenorphine maintenance and trying to treat as many people as possible. The data from this paper illustrates that. There is also the issue of the preventing the pool of opioid users from increasing while trying to treat those who are currently dependent on these drugs. That seems like the best long term option to me.
Addressing this complicated problem takes more than a licensed buprenorphine prescribing physician sitting behind a desk who is willing to prescribe it. It takes better infrastructure including managers who are enlightened enough to get that physician the kind of resources they need to do the work. I never hear politicians or policymakers talking about that.
George Dawson, MD, DFAPA
1: Stein BD, Sorbero M, Dick AW, Pacula RL, Burns RM, Gordon AJ. Physician Capacity to Treat Opioid Use Disorder With Buprenorphine-Assisted Treatment. JAMA. 2016 Sep 20;316(11):1211-1212. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.10542. PubMed PMID: 27654608.